War technics used by Hadhart Umar

Mufti Elias

Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) was delivering a Khutba he exclaimed, ” O, Saariya! Get to the back of the mountain and fight the enemies firmly so that there remains no fear of them attacking from the rear. Do not flee!”

There was an army commander in Nahaawand, named Saariya. When the enemy’s army exerted great pressurehe became scared.
Nahaawand was many miles away from Madinah. There was neither telephone, nor electricity in Madinah. While Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) was delivering a Khutba he exclaimed,
” O, Saariya! Get to the back of the mountain and fight the enemies firmly so that there remains no fear of them attacking from the rear. Do not flee!”Saariya heard the voice in Iraq and saw Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) standing and exclaiming.

The people of Madinah who were listening to the khutba became amazed that he spoke about Saariya going to the back of the mountain.
Once the Salaat terminated the people enquired: “Sir, what mention was that about Saariya?”
Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) said: Saariya was apprehensive of the pressure by the enemies. I conversed with him concerning that.”After a long time when the messenger from Iraq arrived he stated the time and day when they had heard Umar’s (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) voice, and that Saariya had actually seen Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) exclaiming.

From this we can judge what an illustrious saint Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) was, and the level of his spiritual status
HHadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) issued guidelines to the commanders concerning troop manoeuvres, their organisation and dissemination, All these
matters were mandated by means of writing letters to the people concerned. He provided counsel about these proceedings so explicitly as if the battle-field
lay before his eyes. He was constantly perturbed whenever a battle was in progress :
“I do not know whether the Muslims have obtained victory in the battle or have endured defeat.”

Once a battle was fought against the Iranians (Persians). Today there are Muslims in Iran, but in those days they were not Muslims. They continued being derogatory to the Arabs, especially to Rasulullaah (Sallahu Alahi Wasalaam).

Iran had one very courageous leader named Rustam. He was so powerful that he is still remembered today, and about a powerful person we say that he is as strong as Rustam. A battle was waged in an Iranian city called Qudisiya. Rustam was also fighting in this battle.

Rustam’s army retreated before the Arab army approached and did not hold ground in the battle-field. So Rustam also dashed for his life and jumped into a stream. He swam briskly, rotating his arms and feet. An Arab soldier, named Bilaal, grabbed Rustam’s leg, jerked it and cut it off.

During this ferocious battle Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) rose at dawn everyday and went outside Madinah in order to obtain news of the battle from the messengers before anyone else. His concern for the Muslims was so great.

One day he was standing in anticipation when he saw a rider approaching on a camel. What did this naive fellow know that this person clad in simple and patched clothes is that very same Khaleefa of the Muslims whose armies had overthrown the Throne of Iran!
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All the battles which resulted during the era of the successors of Rasulullaah (SallAllaahu alayhi wasallam) were engaged to protect the Muslims and were for defence. The intention of the Muslims was neverto kill, maim of to cause disruption and distress.

Once, in the midst of battle, the inhabitants of Jerusalem, Baitul Muqaddas were constrained to make peace. They stipulated a condition that the Commander of the Believers must come personally andissue a peace pact written by his own hands.

Hadhrat Abu Ubaidah (RadhiAllaahu-anhu), a renowned Companion, was the commander-in-chief of the army. He, too, yearned to have peace without fighting and bloodshed.

There were few among the Muslims who said: “Of what significance are these impoverished people! We have triumphed over the entire Syria. We have implanted our flagstaff on enormous forts. If we make this pact, it will mean that we have made it under pressure.” It was resolved that the sentiments of the inhabitants of Jerusalem be communicated in writingto the Commander of the Believers. His verdict would be conclusive.

When this news reached Madinah, Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) conferred with the Sahaaba. Some were of the opinion that this request should not be approved and the city should be seized by force.Others emphasised that if by Hadhrat Umar’s (RA) going to Jerusalem thousands of people’s lives would be salvaged and the work accomplished without bloodshed, he should definitely go.

Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) said:
“My opinion is to go Jerusalem”.
He departed from Madinah. When he left for his journey there were no troops accompanying him nor was there any band playing music; no flags, and no bodyguards walked ahead of or behind.

He wore simple clothes and rode a horse.
He gave instructions to the commanders to proceed to Jaabiya. When the commanders came they adorned very decorative, long gowns. On seeing this Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) began to throw pebbles at them and said: “Have you abandoned the simplicity of the Arabs and become non-Arabs (Persians)?”
When the commanders removed their cloaks revealing that they were all armed with weapons, Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) felt content.

The commanders said : “O Commander of the Believers! We are only adorning splendid clothes on account of the enemies, lest they classify us for some destitute, desolate people. Otherwise we are Muslims, and one does not become a Muslim by wearing fineclothes”.
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Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) inquired from the messenger: “Where are you coming from? “When he replied: “From Qudisiya.”Hadhrat Umar (RA) asked for more news about the battle. The camel proceeded whilst the messenger was mounted on it.The Khalifa of Allaah’s Rasul ran alongside. When they reached the city and the people exclaimed
“O Commander of the Believers! O Commander of the Believers!”,this simple fellow became flabbergasted. He said: “Sir, Why did you not inform me that you are the Commander of the believers? I have displayed great disrespect to you.”

Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) said: “Don’t worry, and continue narrating the progression of the battle events .”As long as he had not reached his home he
kept trodding alongside the camel. Thereafter, he conveyed the good news to the people of Madinah. On this occasion Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) r
endered a speech. Its last few sentences run as follows:

“O Muslims! I am not a monarch that I may enslave you. I myself am a slave of Allaah. Unquestionablygoverning you lies on my shoulders. If I can execute your work in such a method that you sleep and live in tranquillity then that is my delight. And if anyone aspires to make his appearance at my door to complain about my inefficiency then that is my ill-fortune.”
“I wish to tutor you, not verbally with my orations but with my practical actions”


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