When the peace pact was signed Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) inspected Jerusalem with the Christian leaders. These Christian leaders showed
him a Church when the time of Salaat approached. The Christian leaders requested :
“Perform your Salaat here”.
The Commander of the Believers, Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) said:
“If I perform Salaat here today the Muslims will express tomorrow that our Khaaleefa performed Salaat here. This place is yours. Your Church will become a matter of controversy”.
By bearing these subjects in mind Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) did not perform Salaat in the Church.
When the peace pact was to be signed in Jaabiya, Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) departed for Jerusalem. He had a slave with him.
The slave insisted that Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) should ride the camel and he should hold the reins and walk, as all slaves do. But Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) did not approve of this suggestion; instead he ruled that they take turns in riding the camel. Then by unique coincidence, it so happened that it was the slaves turn to ride when they approached the final stage of the journey.
The slave implored that he must not be concerned about whose turn it was at stage and he said: “I will cede my turn to you”.But Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) was not pleased with that either; and when they approached the city, where a massive crowd awaited them, the slave was riding and Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) was holding the reins. When the Christian priests witnessed this sight they exclaimed that surely such a humble person would
certainly become the “Conqueror of Jerusalem”. Thereafter they cheerfully handed over the keys of Jerusalem to him.
The text of the peace pact, which has already been mentioned was as follows:
The servant of Allaah and Commander of the Believers, Umar makes the following pact with the inhabitants of Jerusalem by the Munificence and Grace of Allaah:
1. The lives of everyone, their belongings, places of worship, Churches and crosses – which they revere – shall be protected in every manner. It will be the responsibility of the government to safeguard them.
2. They shall have the privilege to pray either inside or outside the Churches, according to their religious belief.
3. Their possessions and properties shall not be confiscated under any circumstances.
4. Their Churches shall remain as they are. No Masjid or any other building shall be built in its place. Their crosses shall not be impounded.
5. No `jizya’-land tax will be received from them until the next harvest would be available”.
Hadhrat Khalid bin Waleed (RadhiAllaahu-anhu), Amr bin al Aas (RadhiAllaahu-anhu), Mu’aawiya bin Abi Sufyaan (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) and ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin al – Auf (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) signed this pact as witnesses.
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The deeds of Muslims, their exertions, their sacrifices in the way of Allaah, their integrity and fortitude. All provide us with lessons. If we study these lessons
and forget then what deficiency is it of the lesson? It is our shortcoming that we do not remember the lessons we read. Narrated below is the anecdote of
the victory of Alexander.
Hadhrat Amr bin al -‘Aas (RadhiAllaahu-anhu), who was very brilliant and courageous, was in command of the army at Alexandria. He reported on each
matter to the Khaleefa. It took rather long in conquering Alexandria so Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) wrote him a letter stating: “Perchance you have become fond of extravagance. On receiving my letter you must instantly command the army to attack and let that person be in the forefront whom I have appointed as commander. The army must attack the enemy simultaneously”.
When Umar’s (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) letter reached Hadhrat Amr (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) he commanded a ferocious attack. By the Will of Allaah, Alexandria was conquered. Amr bin al Aas (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) noted this good news, summoned a messenger and instructed him to stop at every two and three `manzils’ and communicate the glad tidings to the Commander of the Believers. The Messengers name was
This is not that Mu’aawiya who was Abu Sufyaan’s son, and who had a son named Yazid. This was Mu’aawiya, son of Khadeej.
When Mu’aawiya reached Madinah it was already early afternoon. He thought it best to rest and not to go to the Khaleefa straight away. After resolving thus he proceeded in the direction of Masjid-e-Nabawi.
By coincidence, Hadhrat Umar’s (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) maid-servant saw Mu’aawiya, who was riding on a camel and enveloped in dust. She inquired :”Where are you coming from?”
Mu’aaywiya replied: “From Alexandria”. The maid-servant ran and told Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) that the messenger from Alexandria had arrived. Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) replied:”Bring him here instantly”.
Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) was setting his sheet which he wore before emerging when Mu’aawiya approached him and conveyed the good news of the victory to him. Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) fell down in sajda forthwith; he then proclaimed that the people should come to the Masjid.
When the inhabitants of Madinah learnt that the messenger from Alexandria had arrived the Masjid was overflowing. Mu’aawiya (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) narrated all the events of the victory. Subsequently, Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) took him to his house.
Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) inquired: “Why did you not come to me instantly on reaching Madinah?”
Mu’aawiya replied:”I did not come pondering that as it was already early afternoon You would have been in relaxation”.
Hadhrat Umar (RadhiAllaahu-anhu) retorted : “Mu’aawiya! If I relax who will undertake the responsibility of governing.”
From those who were appointed administrators of districts and towns, and under-took the responsibility of collecting taxes, an oath was taken:
They would not wear splendid clothes;
They would not eat refined flour;
They would not ride Turkish horses;
They would not keep butlers or door-keepers;
Their doors would constantly be open to the destitute.
Occasionally, these conditions were also written in their documents of appointment and read aloud in public congregation so that the people were aware of the administrators constraints.
If any account was received stating that an administrator’s expenditure was more than his income, the issue was investigated. And if the expenditure was definitely more than the income, an explanation was demanded.
Enormous amounts were deposited in the Baitul Maal, The National Public Treasur