‘Nearly all polio outbreaks since 1961 were caused by the oral polio vaccine,’
-Jonas Salk, inventor of the IPV, testifying before a Senate subcommittee
|Franklin Delano Roosevelt may have been stricken by Guilliam-Barré in 1921, not poliomyelitis as was widely assumed|
- Teen awarded $8.5 million in vaccine case
- Nigerian state to jail parents who resist polio vaccines
- CDC Says Vaccine-Caused Polio Wiped Out
- Researchers Question Cause of FDR’s Paralytic illness
- Controversial FDR findings raise awareness of Guillain-Barré
- What Is Coming Through That Needle?
- Type of cancer, virus are linked | Graph: polio deaths
- Historical perspective
Teen awarded $8.5 million
in vaccine case
A St. Louis jury awarded a teen $8.5 million late Thursday for injuries he said were linked to a polio vaccination 18 years ago.
The lawsuit alleged that Cortez Strong, 18, contracted polio after he received an oral vaccine as an infant. Lawyers for Strong, who lives near Tower Grove Park in St. Louis, say he has limited use of his left arm and right hand.
Strong sued American Cyanamid Co., maker of the vaccine, and Dr. Georgia Santo-Jawaid, his former pediatrician in 1999. She formerly worked with a doctors’ group in the 3900 block of South Grand Boulevard, where Strong received the second dose of medicine when he was four months old.
Jurors gave Strong the full $8.5 million he asked for — $1.5 million for past pain and suffering, $2 million for future missed earnings and $5 million for future pain. Strong, who currently works as a courtesy clerk at a Shop ‘n Save in Maplewood, turned down $50,000 from a vaccine compensation fund in order to sue, said one of his lawyers, Thomas Germeroth.
Jurors agreed with Strong’s lawyers, who alleged that American Cyanamid produced a defective vaccine that caused him to contract polio.
Germeroth told jurors during closing arguments Thursday that the youth faces a grim future of low-paying jobs because of his handicaps. Strong sat in the back of the courtroom during the arguments. Germeroth added: “This company kicked him down…. This jury should make (the company) lift him back up.”
Germeroth said proof of the vaccine’s defect is Strong’s condition. “It caused this boy to have the paralysis it was supposed to prevent. That’s defective,” he said.
Also representing Strong was Stanley Kops of Philadelphia, who has sued American Cyanamid in other, similar cases. Kops argued that the company did not properly test its vaccines as it made them.
Dave Donovan, lawyer for the company, said it had long been known there was a slight but “unavoidable risk” to oral polio vaccine. He said the company carefully manufactured and tested the product. Strong also said that Dr. Santo-Jawaid did not warn Strong’s mother, Alesia Allen, of the risks of taking oral vaccine or offer him an alternative vaccine. Jurors disagreed.
Tad Eckenrode, lawyer for Santo-Jawaid, said the doctor made a point of telling all patients about the risks. “She did what every other doctor in America told patients in 1987,” Eckenrode said.
After the verdict, Eckenrode said “We’re obviously pleased. We’re all still rather stunned by the size of the damage award.” Eckenrode said that he has seen people with “staggering” injuries awarded much less.
Wyeth spokesman Doug Petkus said: “We’re disappointed with the verdict and we disagree with the verdict. We believe we have very strong grounds for appeal and we will appeal.”
Petkus said there had been few cases like Strong’s, “so I can’t compare (the jury award) to anything.”
American Cyanamid was bought in 1994 and now is part of Wyeth Pharmaceuticals.
Nigerian state to jail parents who resist polio vaccines
Katsina State in northern Nigeria will jail any parents who refuse to allow health workers to vaccinate their children against the crippling polio virus, a senior official said on Friday. Northern Nigeria is home to the world’s biggest remaining pocket of polio infections and resistance from Muslim families, who fear a plot to sterilise infant girls, has endangered a plan to eradicate the disease this year. Abdullahi Garba Faskari, the state’s justice commissioner, said that the government would extend a law designed to enforce yellow fever jabs to cover the oral polio vaccine, which Nigerian and United Nations health workers are distributing.
“The government will henceforth arrest and prosecute any parent who refuses to have his child immunised against polio. Such a parent will get between six months and one year in jail without an option of fine,” Faskari said. “In view of the baseless resistance by some parents … and the molestation of vaccinators by parents in some areas, the government feels duty bound to take measures that will bring this madness to an end,” he said. “The refusal of some parents to immunise their children against polio is causing a serious setback in our fight to eradicate polio in our society and we will take any action necessary to change this attitude”, he explained.
Nigeria has almost two-thirds of the cases of polio in the world — 788 infants were paralysed by the crippling disease last year, more than twice as many as in 2003 — and is the main target for a global eradication campaign. The United Nations World Health Organisation and the UN Children’s Fund Unicef are working with Nigerian officials to promote a series of massive immunisation drives designed to protect 15-million infants by the end of 2005. – Sapa-AFP
CDC Says Vaccine-Caused Polio Wiped Out
CDC Says Vaccine-Caused Cases of Polio Have Been Eliminated in United States
CHICAGO Oct. 13, 2004 — A switch in the type of polio vaccine recommended for use in the United States appears to have wiped out U.S. cases of the disease caused by the vaccine itself, the government says.
In 2000, U.S. policy-makers recommended that doctors use only shots containing inactivated polio virus. They reached that conclusion after receiving evidence that the oral vaccine containing live polio virus might have actually caused cases of the disease in rare instances.
The strategy seems to have worked: Government data from 1990 to 2003 show that the last case of vaccine-related polio occurred in 1999, researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported in Wednesday’s Journal of the American Medical Association.
Researcher Lorraine Nino Alexander and colleagues from the CDC pronounced that a “major public health accomplishment in the United States.”
Researchers Question Cause of FDR’s Paralytic illness
Study Suggests 32nd President Suffered From Guillian-Barré Syndrome
The paralysis which struck Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) in 1921 was not caused by poliomyelitis, as has been universally assumed by physicians and historians, according to researchers from the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB). They believe that the most likely cause of FDR’s paralysis was Guillain-Barré syndrome.
The researchers acknowledge that Roosevelt’s vigorous exercise preceding the illness, fever during the initial phase of the disease, and permanent paralysis were consistent with a diagnosis of poliomyelitis. However, many other features “were inconsistent with paralytic poliomyelitis that affects motor neurons but were typical of Guillain-Barré syndrome, an autoimmune disease that damages sensory and motor nerves,” said Dr. Armond Goldman, an emeritus professor in the Department of Pediatrics at UTMB who has treated patients with both illnesses.
The features that were typical of Guillain-Barré syndrome included FDR’s age at the onset of the disease (39 years), the near symmetry and ascending nature of the paralysis, his facial paralysis early in the course of the disease, the duration of the progression of the paralysis, the numbness, extreme prolonged pain, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and the descending pattern of recovery from his paralysis. Whereas patients with mild to moderate Guillian-Barré syndrome usually recover entirely, those with severe disease who are not treated by modern methods often experience permanent paralysis, the authors noted.
The diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome was supported by a statistical analysis that took into account the frequency of paralytic poliomyelitis and Guillian-Barré syndrome in adults of Roosevelt’s age in 1921 and the likelihood of his symptoms occurring in either of the two diseases. Six of eight probabilities in the analysis favoured the diagnosis of Guillian-Barré syndrome, whereas only two (fever and permanent paralysis) favoured poliomyelitis. Although Guillian-Barré syndrome is the most likely diagnosis, Dr. Goldman noted that “no one can be absolutely sure of the cause of Roosevelt’s paralysis because relevant laboratory diagnostic studies were not performed or were not available at the time of his illness.” In that respect, an examination of his cerebrospinal fluid would have been the same because treatment for that disease was not discovered until the latter part of the 20th century.
Despite his residual paralysis, Roosevelt became the 32 President of the United States, a leader of the Allies during the Second World War and an architect of the United Nations. He also helped to create a philanthropic organization called the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, popularly known as the March of Dimes. The Foundation strongly supported the rehabilitation of victims of paralytic poliomyelitis and the development of vaccines that prevent poliovirus infections, one of the major achievements of 20th Century medicine.
Controversial FDR findings raise awareness of Guillain-Barré
excerpt— The symptoms of Roosevelt’s illness, which first became apparent in 1921, more closely resembled those of Guillain-Barré, also known as acute ascending polyneuritis, a team at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston said. It is believed to be an autoimmune disease — one in which the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. It occurs after a mild infection, surgery or, rarely, after an immunization.
Either way, the diagnosis made no difference for Roosevelt — there were no good treatments for either disease in 1921. He was president from 1933 until he died in 1945 from a cerebral hemorrhage.
Writing in the Journal of Medical Biography, pediatrician Dr. Armond Goldman and colleagues said some of Roosevelt’s symptoms did resemble those of polio, which is caused by a virus that can leave crippling side effects. They include his fever when he first became ill and the permanent paralysis of some lower muscles.
But others “were consistent with paralytic poliomyelitis that effects motor neurons but were typical of Guillian-Barré syndrome, an autoimmune disease that damages sensory and motor nerves,” Goldman said in a statement. For instance, FDR was 39 when the disease struck — polio usually affects younger people — his paralysis affected both sides of the body evenly, he had partial facial paralysis early on, numbness, extreme prolonged pain and bladder and bowel dysfunction.
Guillian-Barré syndrome is an inflammatory affliction in which the body’s immune system attacks the peripheral nerves — those nerves beyond the brain and spinal cord. The disorder causes severe weakness and numbness in the legs and arms , upper body and face. The muscles used for eye movement, speaking, chewing and swallowing also may become weak and paralyzed.
Every year an estimated one to four in every 100,000 persons is affected by the disorder, which can strike anyone regardless of race or age. It does, however, appear to be more of a risk as people age. It may occur days or weeks after a viral infection such as influenza or diarrhea and could be triggered by pregancy or a medical procedure such as minor surgery. Because the cause of the disorder is unknown, there’s no way to prevent it from occurring.
|Photo of iron lung|
In its most severe form, Guillian-Barré syndrome is a medical emergency and can require hospitalization; severe cases may result in total paralysis and inability to breathe without a respirator. It is fatal in as many as 15 percent of cases, as well.
What Is Coming Through That Needle?
The Problem of Pathogenic Vaccine Contamination
excerpt— There is another very important issue reported in studies that is evidently being largely ignored as regards long-term vaccine effects and safety. There is obvious evidence that in the lab, continuous immortal cell lines react differently between one type of animal species and another (21, 23). As an example, tissue from one species will allow the immortal cell to induce a cancerous change more quickly, in comparison to tissue from a different species. These results then beg the following questions. How extensively have these continuous cell lines been tested on human tissues, and would the results vary from one type of tissue to another? And what happens over the long term if an immortal cell from a vaccine culture makes its way into the final vaccine product, does it keep dividing in the human body? Another scenario might suggest the tumor-promoting portion of its DNA inserting into a viral genome, which then gets injected into the body what happens at that point?
Furthermore, given the evidence that closely-related animal species (as an example, various species of monkeys) react differently to immortal cells, do we also need to consider that any one vaccine intended for all humans might ultimately react differently among the various races, ethnic groups, and sexes? And what are the effects of the vaccine contaminants on persons with immune depression, on the elderly, or on infants?
A letter from the FDA to vaccine manufacturers dated as recently as March 2001 shows that this issue regarding immortal cell lines is still of concern. It states, In general, CBER [Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research] currently views Vero cells as an acceptable substrate for viral vaccines, but has residual concerns CBER recommends that all products derived from Vero cells be free of residual intact Vero cells. If your manufacturing process does not include a validated filtration step or other validated procedure to clear residual intact Vero cells from the product, please incorporate such a procedure into your manufacturing process (24). It is now 16 years after the WHO gave a go-ahead (in 1986) to use continuous cell lines for vaccine production (25), and yet there are very basic safety questions not resolved by the manufacturers, agencies, and scientific community, much less the finer details (26, 27). One 1991 study reports: Cell substrate DNA was shown to be an abundant contaminant in the clarified preparations of the Sabin type 1, 2 and 3 poliovaccines produced on a continuous cell line(28). Another indicates that immortal cell lines showed 100-times greater number of DNA recombination events compared to normal cells (29). As one researcher states, Using neoplastic cell lines as substrates for vaccine development could inadvertently result in viral-viral or viral-cellular interactions whose biological consequences are unclear viral-viral and viral-cellular interactions can result in the generation of new retroviruses with pathological consequences (30). We note the term “neoplastic” means the quality of having an abnormal growth characteristic.
There is an even stronger statement dating back to 1990. A scientist in the field writes, “The present concern is for safety of vaccines made using transformed or neoplastic mammalian cells that may contain endogenous contaminating viruses or integrated gene sequences from oncogenic viruses. There is also concern for use of plasmid vectors employing promoter elements from oncogenic viruses. The principal concern for safety lies with retention of residual DNA in the vaccine, especially since induction of cancer is a single -cell phenomenon, and a single functional unit of foreign DNA integrated into the host cell genome might serve to induce cell transformation as a single event or part of a series of multifactorial events. Current proposed standards for vaccines would permit contamination with up to 100 pg [picograms] of heterologous DNA per dose. This is equivalent to about 10(8) ‘functional lengths’ of DNA. Total safety would seem to require complete absence of DNA from the product.” (31)
Please note that 10(8) means 10 to the power of 8, or 100,000,000 “functional lengths” of DNA are allowed per dose of vaccine. Is there something wrong with this picture? How long will the general public be subjected to these vaccine products that according to this information, are nowhere near safe?
It has taken, for instance, approximately forty years for the scientific community to finally acknowledge that we have a serious problem as a result of the contaminatio n of polio vaccines with simian virus 40 (SV40) in the late 1950s-early 1960s. There has been previous evidence of some human brain and other tumors containing this virus (32, 33), but the medical community has been slow to acknowledge a definitive link between SV40 and cancer in humans. However, two independent research teams have recently found this virus present in 43% of cases of non-Hodgkins lymphoma (34, 35). Another study found it present in 36% of brain tumors, 16% of healthy blood cell samples, and 22% of healthy semen samples (36). And strangely, SV40 has now been found to infect children (37). Considering that children of this era, are not supposed to be receiving the virus via the vaccine contamination route, this would therefore imply that SV40 is being transmitted from one human to another, in ways not previously known.
Other simian viruses may also be contaminating the (Vero) monkey cell lines used for vaccine production. One example from the literature cites the contamination presence of SV20, which is a oncogenic simian adenovirus (38).
Simply put, are we in a state of denial that vaccines are ultimately transmitting viruses, DNA, and proteins into humans from foreign animal sources (and possibly unhealthy human sources), and that this may be strongly contributing to the incredible upsurge in cancers and serious chronic diseases? Are these foreign animal genes altering your DNA? Furthermore, given that viral presence can sometimes take years to manifest actual disease symptoms, and then considering the tendencies of health-related agencies and corporations towards short-term solutions and profits, will we ever truly know the long-term consequences until it is too late?
- Contreras G, Bather R, Furesz J, Becker BC. Activation of metastatic potential in African green monkey kidney cell lines by prolonged in vitro culture. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 1985 Nov;21(11):649-52. PMID 4066602.
- Levenbook IS, Petricciani JC, Elisberg BL. Tumorigenicity of Vero cells. J Biol Stand 1984 Oct;12(4):391-8. PMID 6526826.
- Furesz J, Fanok A, Contreras G, Becker B. Tumorigenicity testing of various cell substrates for production of biologicals. Dev Biol Stand 1989;70:233-43. PMID 2759351.
- Letter to Sponsors Using Vero Cells as a Cell Substrate for Investigational Vaccines. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, Division of Vaccines and Related Products Applications, March 12, 2001. http://www.fda.gov/cber/ltr/vero031301.htm
- U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. Evolving Scientific and Regulatory Perspectives on Cell Substrates for Vaccine Development. http://www.fda.gov/cber/minutes/0907evolv.txt
- Lewis AM Jr. Developing an approach to evaluate the use of neoplastic cells as vaccine substrates. Dev Biol (Basel) 2001;106:37-42; discussion 42-3. PMID 11761251.
- Purcell DF. Pathogenesis of replication competent retroviruses derived from mouse cells in immunosuppressed primates: implications for use of neoplastic cells as vaccine substrates. Dev Biol (Basel) 2001;106:187-98; discussion 199, 253-63. PMID 11761231.
- Amosenko FA, Svitkin YV, Popova VD, Terletskaya EN, Timofeev AV, Elbert LB, Lashkevich VA, Drozdov SG. Use of protamine sulphate for elimination of substrate DNA in poliovaccines produced on continuous cell lines. Vaccine 1991 Mar;9(3):207-9. PMID 1645900.
- Thyagarajan B, McCormick-Graham M, Romero DP, Campbell C. Characterization of homologous DNA recombination activity in normal and immortal mammalian cells. Nucleic Acids Res 1996 Oct 15;24(20):4084-91. PMID 8918816 (full text article available free at this link).
- Ruscetti SK. Generation of mink cell focus-inducing retroviruses: a model for understanding how viral-viral and viral-cellular interactions can result in biological consequences. Dev Biol (Basel) 2001;106:163-7; discussion 167-8, 253-63. PMID 11761228.
- Hilleman MR. History, precedent, and progress in the development of mammalian cell culture systems for preparing vaccines: safety considerations revisited. J Med Virol 1990 May;31(1):5-12. PMID 2198327.
- Butel JS, Lednicky JA. Cell and molecular biology of simian virus 40: implications for human infections and disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999 Jan 20;91(2):119-34. PMID 9923853.
- Arrington AS, Lednicky JA, Butel JS. Molecular characterization of SV40 DNA in multiple samples from a human mesothelioma. Anticancer Res 2000 Mar-Apr;20(2A):879-84. PMID 10810370.
- Vilchez RA, Madden CR, Kozinetz CA, Halvorson SJ, White ZS, Jorgensen JL, Finch CJ, Butel JS.Association between simian virus 40 and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Lancet 2002 Mar 9;359(9309):817-23. PMID 11897278.
- Shivapurkar N, Harada K, Reddy J, Scheuermann RH, Xu Y, McKenna RW, Milchgrub S, Kroft SH, Feng Z, Gazdar AF. Presence of simian virus 40 DNA sequences in human lymphomas. Lancet 2002 Mar 9;359(9309):851-2. PMID 11897287.
- Bu X, Zhang X, Zhang X, et Al. A study of simian virus 40 infection and its origin in human brain tumors. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2000 Feb;21(1):19-21. PMID 11860751.
- Butel JS, Jafar S, Wong C, Arrington AS, Opekun AR, Finegold MJ, Adam E. Evidence of SV40 infections in hospitalized children. Hum Pathol 1999 Dec;30(12):1496-502. PMID 10667429.
- von Mettenheim AE. Studies on simian viruses as possible contaminants of inactivated virus vaccines. I. Direct and serologic detection of simian adenovirus SV20. Zentralbl Bakteriol [Orig A] 1975 Jul;232(2-3):131-40. PMID 1179876.
Type of cancer, virus are linked
excerpt- A virus that contaminated polio vaccines in the 1950s appears to be associated with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, researchers from Dallas and Houston reported last week. The virus, called SV40, is a monkey virus that contaminated vaccines from 1955 to 1963. It had previously been linked to some brain and bone tumors, but its association with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma had remained unclear.
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a malignancy of certain white blood cells. Experts have been puzzled to see the disease move from relative obscurity to become the fifth most common cancer in the United States. It is the disease that killed Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis and King Hussein of Jordan.
“Prior to the introduction of polio vaccinations in Germany, anyone was counted as having polio, even if they only had the virus in their feces. It is known, he goes on, that there are people who are healthy but who evacuate polio viruses when they go to the bathroom.
Based on this criteria, the number of cases was approximately 4,000 per year. After the introduction of the vaccine, statistics included only those polio cases of people who were paralyzed for at least six weeks.” —Gerhard Buchwald, MD
“Polio has not been eradicated by vaccination, it is lurking behind a redefinition and new diagnostic names like viral or aseptic meningitis. According to one of the 1997 issues of the MMWR, there are some 30,000 to 50,000 cases of viral meningitis per year in the United States alone.
That’s where all those 30,000 – 50,000 cases of polio disappeared after the introduction of mass vaccination” —Viera Scheibner, PhD
Monkey Virus SV40
Polio vaccine infected 98 million US, late 1950- early 1960s